Chronology of the Old Testament (2023)

B.C.

Sequence of Events in the Days of the Early Patriarchs

4000

Fall of Adam.

Ministry of Enoch.

Ministry of Noah; the Flood.

Tower of Babel.

Ministry of Melchizedek.

Death of Noah (Gen. 9:28).

(Those desiring calculated dates on these events may wish to consult published chronologies.)

Birth of Abram.

Birth of Isaac.

Birth of Jacob.

Birth of Joseph.

Joseph sold into Egypt (Gen. 37:2).

Joseph stands before Pharaoh (Gen. 41:46).

Jacob and his family go down to Egypt.

Death of Jacob.

Death of Joseph.

Birth of Moses.

The Exodus when Moses was 80years old.

Death (translation) of Moses.

Death of Joshua.

In the days of Abram we meet with the names of Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, and Amraphel, king of Shinar. Egypt was manifestly a powerful kingdom before and during the patriarchal times, but the early annals of Egypt as they have come down to us help us to few synchronisms that can be relied on.

After the death of Joshua was the period of the Judges, of whom the first was Othniel and the last Samuel, but the arrangement and dates of the rest are very uncertain.

The commencement of the Assyrian empire appears to have been somewhere in the period of the Judges, but much of the chronological data preserved in Assyrian tablets is of a mythical character.

In this section approximate dates are suggested, some help being derived from synchronisms with secular history, which become more numerous with every succeeding century.

B.C.

The Undivided Kingdom

Persons and Events of External History

1095

Commencement of Saul’s reign. Samuel lives for a great part of Saul’s reign.

Nahash, king of Ammon.

Tiglath-pileserⅠ, king of Assyria.

Agag, king of Amalek.

Achish, king of Gath.

1063

David anointed by Samuel.

1055

David king in Hebron.

1047

David king in Jerusalem. Nathan and Gad, prophets.

Hiram, king of Tyre.

Hadadezer, king of Zobah.

Toi, king of Hamath.

Hanun, son of Nahash, king of Ammon.

1015

Solomon made king. Death of David.

1012

Solomon begins to build the temple.

Hiram, king of Tyre.

1004

Solomon begins to build his own house.

991

The buildings are finished.

Hadad the Edomite is protected in Egypt.

Genubath, son of Hadad.

Rezon, king of Zobah.

Shishak, king of Egypt, shelters Jeroboam.

975

Death of Solomon. The ten tribes revolt from Rehoboam.

In the following table the first column of dates follows the books of Kings and Chronicles; the third column contains a revised chronology derived from inscriptions on Assyrian and other monuments. The kings of Judah are printed in heavy type, and the kings of Israel in capitals.

B.C.

Kings of Judah and Israel

Rev. Chr.

Internal History

External History

Synchronisms

975

Rehoboam

JeroboamⅠ

953

Ahijah the Shilomite prophesies, also Shemaiah.

Penuel built (1Kgs. 12:25).

Shishak, king of Egypt.

949

Shishak plunders Jerusalem.

957

Abijam

932

955

Asa

929

954

Nadab

927

Oded and Azariah prophesy.

Asa’s war with Zerah the Ethiopian.

953

Baasha

925

War of Israel against Judah.

Hanani and Jehu prophesy.

930

Elah

901

Asa’s alliance with BenhadadⅠ.

929

Zimri

899

929

Omri (at war with Tibni)

897

925

Omri (victorious)

BenhadadⅠ conquers Omri (1Kgs. 20:34).

918

Ahab

875

Samaria built (1Kgs. 16:24).

Ethbaal (Eithobalus), king of Zidon.

914

Jehoshaphat

873

Elijah the Tishbite.

Jericho rebuilt.

Micaiah son of Imlah prophesies.

Syrian invasion of Samaria (1Kgs. 20:34).

Moab rebels against Israel.

Mesha, king of Moab.

898

Ahaziah

853

Jahaziel prophesies (2Chr. 20:14).

Eliezer of Mareshah prophesies (2Chr. 20:37).

897

Jehoram

851

Elisha prophesies.

Obadiah prophesies (?).

Battle of Ramoth-gilead.

Hazael, king of Syria.

893

Joram

848

885

Ahaziah

844

884

Athaliah

Jehu

843

878

Joash

837

Joash buys off Hazael’s invasion (2Kgs. 12:18).

Syrian victories over Israel (2Kgs. 10:32).

Sardanapalus dies.

856

Jehoahaz

Joel prophesies (?).

842

Jehoash

798

841

Amaziah

797

ShalmaneserⅡ.

826

JeroboamⅡ

790

Hosea prophesies.

Jonah prophesies (2Kgs. 14:25).

Amaziah subdues Edom (2Kgs. 14:7).

ShalmaneserⅢ.

811

Azariah or Uzziah

792

Amos prophesies.

773

Zechariah

749

First Olympiad.

772

Shallum

748

772

Menahem

748

There is much uncertainty about the chronology of the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham, and Pekah, and from 2Kgs. 15:1–2, and 30–32, it is clear that there is some confusion in the biblical numbers. Uzziah’s name is now thought to have been discovered in an Assyrian inscription 740B.C. If that proves correct, the commencement of Isaiah’s prophecy cannot date before that year, and the time of Jotham’s regency may have been counted as regnal years. In these tables the biblical numbers have been adhered to, as far as possible, but they require further elucidation, which we may hope for as the Assyrian chronology becomes more assured.

Pul, king of Assyria (= Tiglath-pileserⅢ?).

761

Pekahiah

759

Pekah

Rezin, king of Syria.

758

Jotham

740

Isaiah begins to prophesy.

Rome founded.

Era of Nabonassar, 747.

Tiglath-pileserⅢ, king of Assyria (747–734).

So, king of Egypt.

Pekahiah (rev. chr.)

737

Pekah (rev. chr.)

735

742

Ahaz

734

730

Hoshea

733

726

Hezekiah

728

ShalmaneserⅤ, king of Assyria, 727.

721

End of the Northern kingdom

722

Micah prophesies.

Sargon.

Merodach-baladan, king of Babylon, 722.

Death of Sennacherib, 681.

Esarhaddon.

Median kingdom formed.

697

Manasseh

697

Psammetichus, king of Egypt, 670.

Fall of No-amon (Thebes), 660.

642

Amon

642

Nahum prophesies (?).

Assurbanipal (667–626).

640

Josiah

640

Huldah the prophetess.

Jeremiah begins to prophesy, 628.

Zephaniah prophesies.

Pharaoh Necho, king of Egypt.

Nabopolassar, king of Babylon, 625–604.

609

Jehoahaz

609

Obadiah prophesies (?).

Fall of Nineveh, 606.

609

Jehoiakim

609

Daniel carried captive, 606.

Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, 604–561.

598

Jehoiachin

598

Habakkuk prophesies.

598

Zedekiah

598

Ezekiel prophesies.

587

Capture of Jerusalem

587

B.C.

Jewish History

External History

561

Jehoiachin’s captivity relaxed.

Evil-merodach, king of Babylon.

559

Commencement of the Persian Empire under Cyrus.

Neriglissar, king of Babylon, 559–555.

555

Belshazzar co-regent with Nabonidus.

538

Union of Media and Persia under Cyrus.

Fall of Babylon.

537

Decree of Cyrus for the return of the Jews.

536

Joshua, high priest.

529

Ahasuerus (Ezra 4:6).

=Cambyses, king of Persia, 529–521.

525

Egypt conquered by Cambyses. Birth of Aeschylus.

521

Artaxerxes (Ezra 4:7).

=Pseudo-Smerdis.

521

DariusⅠ (Ezra 4:5).

=Darius Hystaspes.

520

The hindered temple building resumed. Haggai and Zechariah prophesy.

Sophocles born, 495.

490

Battle of Marathon.

486

Ahasuerus (Esth. 1:1).

=Xerxes, 486–465.

Egypt revolts from Persia for 2years.

483

Joiakim, high priest.

Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis, 480.

465

Artaxerxes (Ezra 7:1).

=Artaxerxes Longimanus.

458

Commission of Ezra.

453

Eliashib, high priest.

444

Nehemiah appointed governor of Judea.

432

Nehemiah’s second mission to Jerusalem. Prophecy of Malachi.

Plato born, 429.

424

DariusⅡ.

=Darius Nothus.

414

Egypt and Media both revolt from Persia.

413

Joiada, high priest.

404

Artaxerxes Mnemon.

401

Battle of Cunaxa.

Demosthenes born, 382.

373

Johanan, high priest.

359

Philip, king of Macedon.

358

Darius Ochus.

Plato dies, 348.

341

Jaddua, high priest.

337

Arses.

336

DariusⅢ (Neh. 12:22).

=Darius Codomannus.

Philip of Macedon slain.

332

Jaddua goes out to meet Alexander.

Alexander in Syria and Egypt.

331

Battle of Arbela.

330

Darius slain. End of the Persian power.

323

Ptolemy Lagides obtains Egypt.

Death of Alexander the Great and dismemberment of his empire.

B.C.

Jewish History

Egypt

Syria

321

OniasⅠ, high priest.

320

Ptolemy (Lagides) Soter takes Jerusalem.

314

Antigonus conquers Palestine from Ptolemy.

312

Seleucus (Nicator).

311

Palestine by treaty assigned to Antigonus.

302

Palestine retaken by Ptolemy.

During this disturbed period many Jews migrated from Palestine and settled in Egypt and in parts of Asia Minor; they were held in much esteem by the rulers of those countries in which they settled.

301

Battle of Ipsus. Antigonus defeated by Seleucus.

300

Simon the Just, high priest.

292

Eleazar, high priest.

284

Ptolemy Philadelphus.

280

About this time the Septuagint version of the Hebrew scriptures appears to have been commenced in Alexandria, though it was not finished for more than a century after.

Antiochus (Soter).

277

Manasseh, high priest.

260

Antiochus (Theos).

250

OniasⅡ, high priest.

246

Ptolemy Euergetes.

245

Seleucus Callinicus.

225

Tribute due to Egypt not paid by Onias.

Seleucus Keraunus.

223

Antiochus the Great.

221

Ptolemy Philopator.

217

SimonⅡ, high priest.

Ptolemy’s outrage in the Jewish temple.

216

Battle of Raphia.

Treaty between Antiochus and Ptolemy.

204

Ptolemy Epiphanes.

195

OniasⅢ, high priest.

187

Seleucus Philopator.

180

Ptolemy Philometor.

176

Heliodorus sent to plunder the temple.

175

Onias deposed by Antiochus. Jason, high priest.

Antiochus Epiphanes.

173

Cleopatra, guardian of Philometor, dies.

172

Menelaus, Jason’s brother, nominated high priest.

172

OniasⅢ murdered about this time.

170

Antiochus defeats the Egyptians.

169

Jason seizes Jerusalem, which Antiochus attacks on his return from Egypt and pollutes the temple.

Second invasion of Egypt.

168

Daily sacrifice interrupted.

Ptolemy Physcon set up for a time in Egypt but soon makes common cause with his brother Philometor.

Third attack on Egypt.

167

Mattathias the Hasmonean revolts.

166

Battle of Emmaus. Victory of Judas Maccabaeus.

165

Dedication of the temple.

164

Antiochus Eupator.

163

Lysias defeated by Judas at Bethsura. Alcimus, high priest. Menelaus put to death.

162

Demetrius Soter.

161

Nicanor defeated at Capharsalama. Death of Judas Maccabaeus at Eleasa.

Contests between Philometor and Physcon. Appeals to Rome.

160

Decree of the Roman Senate in favor of the Jews.

159

Death of Alcimus.

156

Jonathan, brother of Judas, ruler of Judea.

153

Jonathan made high priest by Balas.

Alexander Balas set up against Demetrius.

150

Jonathan honored by Philometor and Balas.

Alexander Balas, king of Syria.

149

Onias, son of OniasⅢ, made commander-in-chief in Egypt.

146

Ptolemy Philometor opposes Alexander Balas.

145

Ptolemy Physcon (EuergetesⅡ).

Demetrius Nicator.

143

Jonathan put to death by Tryphon. Simon, high priest.

142

Simon, “Prince of the Jews.” Jews allowed to coin money.

139

Antiochus Sidetes. Tryphon put to death.

135

Murder of Simon. John Hyrcanus, high priest.

130

Demetrius Nicator.

126

Zebina.

123

Antiochus Grypus.

116

Ptolemy Lathyrus (SoterⅡ).

109

Hyrcanus wars on Samaria and destroys the temple on Gerizim.

Cleopatra and Alexander.

106

Hyrcanus dies. Aristobulus (his son), first king of the Jews.

105

Alexander Jannaeus made king of the Jews.

96

Jannaeus captures Gaza.

Ptolemy, king of Cyrene, bequeaths his kingdom to the Romans.

Seleucus succeeds his father Grypus.

94

The Pharisees hostile to Jannaeus.

93

War of Jannaeus in Gilead and Moab.

92

Philip, brother of Seleucus, gains the throne.

88

Jannaeus defeated at Shechem.

87

Ptolemy Lathyrus recalled.

83

Tigranes, king of Armenia, set over Syria.

80

Ptolemy Alexander.

78

Death of Jannaeus. Alexandra, his widow, rules after him. HyrcanusⅡ, high priest.

69

AristobulusⅡ seizes the government.

66

Pompey conquers Syria for the Romans.

Roman Affairs

65

Ptolemy Auletes.

64

Disputes between Aristobulus and Hyrcanus.

63

Jerusalem taken by Pompey. Hyrcanus again high priest.

54

Palestine divided into five districts.

Crassus defeated by the Parthians at Carrhae, 53.

51

Crassus plunders the temple.

Cleopatra.

48

Antipater made a governor over Judea.

Battle of Pharsalia.

Battle of Thapsus, 46.

44

Hyrcanus, “Prince of the Jews.”

Assassination of Caesar.

42

Battle of Philippi.

41

Herod and Phasael, joint tetrarchs of Judea.

40

Herod flees to Rome. Antigonus set up in his stead.

38

Herod marries Mariamne.

37

Herod takes Jerusalem.

31

Battle of Actium.

Augustus, emperor, 31B.C.A.D.14.

30

Cleopatra dies. Egypt becomes a Roman province.

29

Mariamne put to death.

25

Herod rebuilds Samaria.

17

Herod restores the temple.

6

Alexander and Aristobulus put to death.

FAQs

What are the books of the Old Testament in chronological order? ›

What Are the 46 Books of the Old Testament in Order?
  • Genesis.
  • Exodus.
  • Leviticus.
  • Numbers.
  • Deuteronomy.
  • Joshua.
  • Judges.
  • Ruth.
Oct 26, 2021

What is the chronological order of the Bible events? ›

Contents
  • 4.1 Adam to the Flood 4246–2590 BC.
  • 4.2 The Flood to Abram 2589–2211 BCE.
  • 4.3 Abraham to Joseph 2198–1936 BCE.
  • 4.4 Egypt to the Exodus 1914–1577 BCE.
  • 4.5 The Wilderness Period to the Conquest of Canaan 1576–1505 BCE.
  • 4.6 The Judges to the United Monarchy 1505–1018 BCE.

Is the entire Old Testament arranged chronologically? ›

The entire Old Testament is arranged chronologically. The Latter Prophets are the books named after individual prophets. The books of the Bible were separated into chapters and verses in ancient times.

What was the original order of the Old Testament? ›

Composition. The first five books—Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, book of Numbers and Deuteronomy—reached their present form in the Persian period (538–332 BC), and their authors were the elite of exilic returnees who controlled the Temple at that time.

What is the 39 books of Old Testament? ›

Books in the Old Testament
  • Genesis (50 Chapters)
  • Exodus (40 Chapters)
  • Leviticus (27 Chapters)
  • Numbers (36 Chapters)
  • Deuteronomy (34 Chapters)
  • Joshua (24 Chapters)
  • Judges (21 Chapters)
  • Ruth (4 chapters)

In what order should the Bible be read? ›

When it comes to the reading order of biblical books, it's wise to start with the Gospels since they are biographies of Jesus Christ. Then read Acts, James, 1 John, and the Paul's Letters. After that, read the rest of the New Testament. Then, in the Old Testament, start with Genesis, Psalms, and Daniel.

What are the main events of the Old Testament? ›

  • An Encounter Cheat Sheet.
  • Creation, Adam and Eve (Genesis 1–3)
  • Noah's Ark (Genesis 6–9)
  • Tower of Babel (Genesis 11:1-9)
  • The Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis 19)
  • Abraham Sacrifices Isaac (Genesis 22:1-19)
  • Jacob's Ladder (Genesis 28)
  • The Twelve Sons of Jacob, Joseph's Rise to Power (Genesis 35–47)

How many years was it from Adam to Jesus? ›

So 69 weeks amount to 483 years; for, from the said year of Darius, unto the 42nd year of Augustus, in which year our Saviour Christ was born, are just and complete so many years, whereupon we reckon, that from Adam unto Christ, are 3974 years, six months, and ten days; and from the birth of Christ, unto this present ...

When did Adam Eve live? ›

They used these variations to create a more reliable molecular clock and found that Adam lived between 120,000 and 156,000 years ago. A comparable analysis of the same men's mtDNA sequences suggested that Eve lived between 99,000 and 148,000 years ago1.

Why is the book of Jeremiah not in chronological order? ›

Even worse, the conventional version of the Book of Jeremiah is not in chronological order because it is made up of a number of source documents.

Is the book of Genesis in chronological order? ›

Genesis Creation Account Set Forth in Chronological Order? The first chapter of Genesis certajnly gives the impres sion that it is to be understood as a chronological account of God's activity in creation. Genesis 1: 1-2:3 is primarily structured by a device consisting of a sequence of days numbered one through seven.

Who wrote Genesis? ›

Tradition credits Moses as the author of Genesis, as well as the books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and most of Deuteronomy; however, modern scholars, especially from the 19th century onward, place the books' authorship in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, hundreds of years after Moses is supposed to have lived.

What are the 5 major divisions of the Old Testament? ›

DIVISIONS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT
  • Genesis.
  • Exodus.
  • Leviticus.
  • Numbers.
  • Deuteronomy.

Why are there 39 books in the Old Testament? ›

The number of books

English Bibles list 39 books for the Old Testament because of the practice of bisecting Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles and of counting Ezra, Nehemiah, and the 12 Minor Prophets as separate books.

Is the Torah the same as the Bible? ›

The meaning of “Torah” is often restricted to signify the first five books of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament), also called the Law (or the Pentateuch, in Christianity). These are the books traditionally ascribed to Moses, the recipient of the original revelation from God on Mount Sinai.

Why was the Apocrypha removed? ›

They reasoned that not printing the Apocrypha within the Bible would prove to be less costly to produce. Since that time most modern editions of the Bible and reprintings of the King James Bible omit the Apocrypha section. Modern non-Catholic reprintings of the Clementine Vulgate commonly omit the Apocrypha section.

Who was Mary found with child by? ›

Matthew 1:18-25

When his mother Mary had been engaged to Joseph, but before they lived together, she was found to be with child from the Holy Spirit.

What are the four major division of the Old Testament? ›

The Old Testament contains four main sections: the Pentateuch, the Former Prophets (or Historical Books), the Writings, and the Latter Prophets.

Where should a beginner start reading the Bible? ›

If you're new to the Bible, the best place to start is the Gospel of John. This book (the fourth book in the New Testament) is John's eyewitness account of the life of Jesus. As one of Jesus' closest disciples, John's account is both riveting and informative.

How should the Old Testament be read? ›

We should be reading it book by book in order to understand first how each verse relates to the book and then from a big picture perspective, how each book relates to the complete Bible. We need to study the history behind each book too because that will help us understand the content even more.

What should I read first in the Bible? ›

Consider Reading Genesis First

However, Genesis proves to be a more important beginning to a story than any other beginning you have ever read. You desperately need to read it. It's the beginning of God's story, but it is also the beginning of your story. The Bible isn't fiction; it's the story of reality.

Is the book of Genesis in chronological order? ›

Genesis Creation Account Set Forth in Chronological Order? The first chapter of Genesis certajnly gives the impres sion that it is to be understood as a chronological account of God's activity in creation. Genesis 1: 1-2:3 is primarily structured by a device consisting of a sequence of days numbered one through seven.

What is meant by chronological order? ›

adjective [usually ADJECTIVE noun] If things are described or shown in chronological order, they are described or shown in the order in which they happened. I have arranged these stories in chronological order. Synonyms: sequential, ordered, historical, progressive More Synonyms of chronological.

What is last book of Old Testament? ›

39. Malachi. 430 B.C. The last book of the Old Testament, Malachi is a beautiful expression of God's love for a nation that continues to disobey Him.

Is Job the first book of the Bible? ›

The Book of Job (/dʒoʊb/; Biblical Hebrew: אִיּוֹב, romanized: ʾIyyōḇ), or simply Job, is a book found in the Ketuvim ("Writings") section of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh), and is the first of the Poetic Books in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible.

Videos

1. A Simple Way to Understand the Old Testament Timeline
(Book of Mormon Central)
2. The Old Testament Told in Only 5 Minutes
(Dan Hait)
3. The Bible Timeline: the 4 Major time periods in Scripture
(OverviewBible)
4. The Chronological Order of the New Testament
(Amy Senter)
5. Overview: TaNaK / Old Testament
(BibleProject)
6. An Overview of Old Testament History | A Timeline of Biblical Events
(Mario Escobedo)
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